Tired of the standard textbook descriptions of the Quicksort algorithm? Here’s a rhyming presentation suitable for all ages 🙂

As a reading guide, here’s a matching pseudo-code partial implementation that follows the procedure described in the rhyme. Enjoy your holidays!

If you’re familiar with computer science, you’re also familiar with the notion of abstraction. Abstraction is ubiquitous in computing. Whereas it belongs to all of science in one way or another, it has a pivotal role in computing where everything abstracts something more concrete and concrete computations are made of abstractions.

If you’re familiar with music, you’re also familiar with the notion of abstraction. Abstraction is ubiquitous in music. Whereas it belongs to all of the arts in one way or another, it has a pivotal role in music where everything abstracts something more concrete and concrete music is made of abstractions.

The similarity between computing and music with respect to abstraction runs deeper. Abstraction is introduced to solve similar problems that originate in a tension between flexibility and stability, generality and concreteness, effectiveness and understandability. In this post, I illustrate the analogy with one concrete example in music and one concrete example in computing. To make sure that the discussion does not become too — ahem — abstract, I recommend you first read the part you’re more familiar with, so that the analogies in describing its counterpart will be easier to follow.

Abstraction in music: the sonata form

A music composer has to reconcile his aspiration of creativity with the listener’s expectation of a structure familiar to her. Ideally, the composer’s be unencumbered, free to express his ideas by whatever musical items he deems appropriate; but such an approach has a high risk of alienating the listener, who may not be able to follow the ideas expressed in music without any structure for orientation. This is why music (like other arts) has developed forms, which are conventions that help achieve trade-offs between constraining the composer and convincing the listener. The sonata form is one of the most popular of such musical forms as proved by its malleability and longevity.

The sonata form is a prescription to organize the structure of a musical piece in a way that is regular but also leaves plenty of room for the outcomes of artistic creativity. A piece in this form consists of three main sequential parts: exposition, development, and recapitulation. Let’s illustrate them on the first movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata #9 (Op. 14 No. 1); you can listen to it played by Claudio Arrau in this YouTube video (I’ll link to specific segments as I introduce the sonata’s parts) and follow the music on one of these scores in the public domain.

The exposition (bars 1–60) introduces a number of themes (or subjects), which are melodies expressing the ground content of the whole piece. By opening with a presentation of unadulterated themes, the composer offers a convenient entry point to the listener: by becoming familiar with the primary ingredients of the sonata, she becomes capable of following the composer’s creation into unexpected territory without losing a general sense of direction. Beethoven’s sonata introduces three themes: the first theme (bars 1–21) begins with a first melodic line in the tonic (E major), which is then varied to construct a modulation into the dominant (B major); the second theme (bars 22–38) takes over in this key with a cantabile character, contrasted by the ensuing third theme (bars 39–56) which is more rhythmic in nature. A codetta (bars 57–60) takes up the last bars of the exposition and connects the third theme to a repetition of the exposition and then, after the repetition, to the second main sonata part: the development.

The development (bars 61–90) is a sonata’s central part, where the composer has substantial freedom to explore his ideas without major structural constraints. By varying and recombining the thematic material previously presented, he can lay out a compelling and imaginative musical argument while building atop the foundations laid in the exposition. The development in Beethoven’s sonata is fairly short, but it manages to explore some interesting fluid tonal contrasts between major and minor keys, and to expand the scant material of the codetta in a more dignified context (from bar 83).

The development is followed by the third sonata part: the recapitulation (bars 91–147). As the name suggests, the recapitulation is a concluding summary where the by-now familiar themes make their last appearance. The composer still has room for expressing his creative ideas in the recapitulation, as themes often change attributes such as presentation order, key, rhythm, and other melodic or harmonic details. Beethoven, for example, ventures into a minor key while transitioning from the first to the second theme in the recapitulation, and introduces other ingenious surprises that reward the attentive listener. The movement closes with a coda (from bar 148), which expands the material of the exposition’s codetta while restoring the awaited tonic key for an irenic conclusion.

The imperfectly symmetric exposition and recapitulation constitute an interface between the deep concrete musical ideas stirring in the composer’s mind and the ears and brains of the listener, who can so appropriate, in a generalized form, some of those ideas and enjoy them.

Abstraction in computing: the modular routine

A computer programmer has to reconcile her creative aspiration of producing an efficient implementation with the user’s expectation of an interface easy to understand and exporting predictable behavior. Ideally, the programmer’s be free to resort to any technical means she deems appropriate to build an implementation that is fast, uses little memory, or is idiomatic in the chosen programming language; but too much freedom has a high risk of producing a program that is hard to use because its exact requirements and guarantees are arduous to fathom. This is why computing (like other scientific and engineering disciplines) has developed techniques for modularization, which are approaches that discipline how program code is structured in such a way that the effects of modular components can be understood in isolation as well as in combination. The modular routine is one of the most popular elements of modular design as proved by its ubiquity across programming languages.

The modular routine combines a piece of code (the body or implementation) with a well-defined interface. The interface consists of a signature, a precondition, and a postcondition. Let’s illustrate these parts on the algorithm for binary search in sorted arrays; here’s an implementation taken from Tim Bray’s, which I adapted to pseudo-Eiffel and annotated with a suitable complete functional specification.

The program text begins (line 1) with the signature, which declares the data the routine operates on. The input data consists of the integer array a, which includes a.count elements from a[0] to a[a.count - 1], and of the integer scalar target, whose value is searched among a‘s elements. The output data is also an integer scalar, referred to as Result in the rest of search_binary.

Routine search_binary works correctly under certain assumptions about properties of the input data passed to it by callers. These assumptions are encoded as the precondition (lines 2–4) which includes two clauses. First, a must refer to a valid array object (line 3). Second, a‘s content must be sorted in nondecreasing order (line 4). The second precondition clause is specific to binary search, whose algorithm leads meaningless results if applied to sequences that are not ordered.

The body (lines 5–27) is a routine’s central part, where the programmer has substantial freedom to work out a suitable implementation without major restrictions beyond those given by the programming language’s features. The body of search_binary begins with a declaration of three integer local variables (line 6), which will be used to keep track of intermediate states in the computation. A loop occupies the major part of the body and does the heavy lifting of searching for the target. As we understand from the loop invariant (lines 10–13), the interval that goes from low to high (excluded) marks, at any point during the computation, the range of values in a that have not been searched for yet. Conversely, the elements at indexes from 0 to low are not greater than target; and the elements at indexes from high to a.count - 1 are greater than it. The body of search_binary exits the loop only when the whole array a has been searched. At that point, the final conditional (lines 23–27) can conclude whether a value equal to target exists at all in a: if low is still -1 or points to an element not equal to — and hence less than because of the invariant — target, the routine returns the invalid index -1 to denote “element not found”; otherwise, a[low] is a valid array element equal to target, and the routine returns its index. The choice of decoupling searching from determining whether target is in the array is an example of the programmer’s freedom to design an implementation that achieves specific, advantageous trade-offs. Bray points out why this approach is preferable to performing two tests in the loop (one for less than, and one for equal to) in the hope of exiting the loop earlier if target is found: in a search where the search interval shrinks exponentially, “nearly all” values are found in the last iteration; hence minimizing the operations per iteration is the most efficient solution. Other programmers, given different constraints, may however follow other approaches; for example, Joshua Bloch’s implementation of binary search in Java’s OpenJDK uses a loop with three-way comparison.

Understanding all these details of the implementation would be burdensome to users who just want to call search_binary to avail of its functionality. This is why the body is followed by the last routine part: the postcondition (lines 28–31), which summarizes the routine’s output in relation to the value of the input arguments. The postcondition of search_binary includes three clauses, defining the output whether the value searched for has been found or not. If Result denotes a valid index of a (line 29), then it points to an element with value target; otherwise Result is -1 (line 30), and hence a has no such element. The last postcondition clause (line 31) specifies that these are the only possible values Result may take; that is, the postcondition is complete. The functional postcondition nicely abstracts not only the details of the specific implementation of binary search, but even the fact that a binary search algorithm has been executed. Any search routine, be it binary, sequential, or following any other technique, could export the same postcondition in its interface to communicate to the user its input/output behavior.

The mirroring precondition and postcondition constitute a rigorous interface between the ingenious ephemeral details of the efficient implementation engineered by the programmer and the general terse information that is available to the user, who can so reuse, in different contexts, the programmer’s code and take advantage of its reliable behavior.


Although the analogy between sonatas and routines is imperfect, it unveils deep conceptual connections. As the key to managing complexity, abstraction underpins any efforts to further knowledge; and helps push to new horizons music and programs alike.